
James D. Meadows
© March, 2009
574 pages, hardcover, illustrated
ISBN: 0971440166
Publisher Price: $129
Geometric Dimensioning and
Tolerancing – Applications, Analysis & Measurement [per ASME Y14.52009] is
based on the ASME Y14.52009 Dimensioning and Tolerancing Standard.
Copublished by ASME, this textbook reflects new symbology, rules and basic
principle revisions that took the Y14.5 committee almost 15 year to complete. It
shows how to interpret design drawings and CAD representations of product
definitions that use the ASME Y14.52009 standard. It also explains stepbystep
procedures to apply the new Y14.52009 practices and allows dimensioning and
tolerancing professionals to express their design requirements more clearly. The
results are that: production representations are able to be more specific in
conveying tolerancing needs, products can be more easily manufactured, and
appropriate inspection techniques are clarified. 
Textbook Contents:
1 Symbols, Rules, Charts
Geometric Characteristics
Symbols
New Symbols
Old Symbols, New Meanings
ChartsFood Chains of Symbology
A Few Basic Definitions, Formulas and Guidelines
New Rule Regarding the Use of Regardless of Feature Size
Maximum Material Boundary, Least Material Boundary and
Regardless of Material Boundary
Actual Minimum Material Envelope vs. Actual Mating Envelope
Flatness of the Derived Median Plane
Types of Controls
Tolerances
General Rules for Tolerances
2 Selecting a Tolerancing
Approach
Datums and Datum Features
Defining, Tolerancing and Qualifying Datum Features
Fixed Fastener Assembly Tolerancing Formula
Simultaneous Requirement Rule
Reading a Feature Control Frame
3 Datum Feature Simulators
Datum Feature Simulators: Physical and Imaginary
Fixtures, Gages and Virtual Condition Boundaries
4 Boundaries and Material
Condition Symbols, MMC, LMC & RFS
Dimensioning and Tolerancing Overview
Rule #1: Size Tolerance and Form Tolerance are Interdependent
Exceptions to Rule #1
New Principle of Independency Symbol
GO Gages
Brief Comparison of Concentricity, Circular Runout, Total Runout
and Position Tolerancing
Introduction of Orientation on Mating Parts
Material Condition Symbols and Concepts Explained
Regardless of Feature Size
Least Material Condition
Maximum Material Condition
Inner and Outer Boundary Calculations
5 Major Concepts of
Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing
Converting from Plus and Minus Tolerance to Geometric Tolerance
Position
Profile
Selecting Datum Features
Size Tolerance Controls Form Tolerance (Rule #1), GO Gages
Flatness
Perpendicularity
Mating Part Tolerancing
Reading the Feature Control Frames as a Language
Functional Gages
Calculating Inner and Outer Boundaries
Virtual Condition
Resultant Condition
Practical Absolute Gage Tolerancing
Bonus Tolerancing Formulas
Allowed vs. Actual Deviation from True Position Calculations
Conversion Chart Inches
Conversion Chart Millimeters
Tolerance Zone vs. Boundary Verification
Another Difference between Bonus Tolerance (Growth) and Datum Shift
(Movement) of Tolerance Zones
6 Form
Flatness
Straightness
Cylindricity
Circularity (Roundness)
Spherical Diameters Controlled with Circularity
Average Dimensions
7 Orientation
Parallelism
Parallelism of a Tangent Plane
Perpendicularity
Angularity
Angularity of a Tangent Plane
Angularity as a Refinement of Position
Shifting vs. Growing Tolerance Zones
8 Profile
Profile of a Surface
New Symbol for Unequal or Unilateral Profile Tolerancing
Profile of a Line
The Power and Versatility of Profile (Mating Parts)
Tolerancing Mating Part Profiles
Composite Profile
Composite vs. Two Single Segment Profile Controls
Profiling Patterns of Features Using 3 Levels of Profile Tolerances
Coplanarity
Continuous Feature of Size Symbol
Dimension Origin Symbol
Locating Offset Surface with Profile of a Surface
Conicity
9 Runout
Circular Runout
Total Runout
Comparison of Perpendicularity and Total Runout on a Planar Surface
10 Concentricity and
Symmetry
Concentricity
Comparison of Coaxiality Controls
Symmetry
11 Datums
How They are Selected and What They Mean
Specifying Degrees of Freedom
Datum Feature Simulation
Designating Degrees of Freedom on the Part Drawing
Establishing a Valid Datum Plane
Effects of Differing Datum Precedence on Part Acceptance
Curved Surface as a Datum Feature
Conical Datum Features
Datum Feature Pattern Referenced Regardless of Material Boundary
Inclined Datum Feature
Constant CrossSections and Complex Datum Features
Specifying Degrees of Freedom in the Feature Control Frame
Multiple Datum Reference Frame Identification
Correct Material Boundary Size Specified Next to the Datum Feature
Correct Material Boundary Calculations
Using the Translation Modifier
Basic or BSC Spelled Out in a Feature Control Frame
Planar Datum Feature Simulated at Regardless of Material Boundary (RMB)
Planar Datum Feature Simulated at Maximum Material Boundary (MMB)
Offset Datum Features of Size Simulated at RMB and MMB
Profiled Datum Features Simulated at RMB and MMB
Irregular Datum Features of Size
12 Centerplane Datums
An Overview
Centerplane Datums on Mating Parts in a Fixed Fastener Assembly 
13 Position with Fixed Fastener
Assemblies and Projected Tolerance Zones
Tolerancing Mating Parts in a Fixed Fastener Assembly
Projected Tolerance Zones and How they are Measured
Datum Feature Shift/Pattern Shift
Alternate Method Using Chain Lines to Show Projected Tolerance Zones
Calculating Clearance Hole Sizes Needed Without Projected Tolerance Zones
14 Tolerancing Mating Parts in a
Floating Fastener Assembly
Floating Fastener Assembly Condition (Radial Hole Patterns)
Assigning Datum Features to Mating Parts with Radial Hole Patterns
Calculating Position Tolerance
Two Single Segment Position Tolerancing
Calculating Minimum Wall Thicknesses
Accumulative Datum Shift on Mating Parts in an Assembly
Tolerance Zones and Their Movement with Two Single Segment Position
15 Direct vs. Indirect
Relationships
Overview
Tolerancing Mating Parts Holding Function Directly and Indirectly
Switching Datums in MidStream
Unique Effects of Utilizing the LMC and LMB Concepts
Wall Thickness Calculations
16 Datum Targets
Flexible Parts, Datum Targets and Partial Datum Features
Sheet Metal Panels and GD&T Sheets
Equalizing Datums
Moveable Targets, Finding the Datum Planes and Fixturing
Datum Target Symbols for Spherical Diameters
Centerplane Datums
Spherical Tolerance Zones
17 Datum Feature Scheme
Choices
Datum Feature Patterns and Profile
Simultaneous Requirements
Compound Datum Features of Size
Secondary and Tertiary Datum Features of Size
Finished Machining Requirements for a Cast Part
18 Flexible Parts
Flexible Parts and Inspecting Them in the Way They Work
Temporary Datum Features
Common Misconceptions
Free State Variation in Sheet Metal Parts
Specifying Restrained State Inspection
Fixturing Sheet Metal Parts
Profile ALL OVER Controls and What They Mean
19 Position Boundary Concept
Position Boundary
Elongated Holes
Functional Gages and Virtual Condition Boundaries
Tolerancing Hoses, Pipes and Tubing with Positional Boundary
Tolerancing Oddly Configured Features with Positional Boundary
Oddly Configured Datum Features and How to Represent them in Gages
Tolerance Zones vs. Boundary Concept Explanation
Rectangular Tolerance Zones for Round Holes
Bidirectional Position Tolerancing, Polar Coordinate Method
20 Why Use GD&T
Multiple Interpretations of Simple Plus and Minus Tolerances
Converting from Plus and Minus to Composite Position Tolerancing
Calculating the Position Tolerance for a Composite Position Control
Minimum Wall Thickness Calculation for Composite Position Tolerances
Composite Tolerancing for Coaxial Hole Patterns
Minimum Wall Thickness Calculations for Coaxial Hole Patterns
Composite Position Tolerancing with 3 Levels of Control
Differentiating Between Features of Similar Size and Shape
21 Composite vs. Two Single
Segment Positional Tolerancing
Composite vs. Two Single Segment Positional Tolerancing
Similarities
Differences
One Level Tolerancing vs. Composite Tol. and Simultaneous Requirements
Two Single Segment Position Controls
Refining Geometric Controls to be More Cost Effective
22 Dimensioning and
Tolerancing of Gages
Dimensioning and Tolerancing of Gages per ASME Y14.432003
GO Gages
NOGO Gages
Functional Gages
Calculating to Determine Good Parts Rejected or Bad Parts Accepted
Steps in the Development of a Dimensional Inspection Plan
23 Tolerance StackUp
Analysis
Tolerance StackUp Analysis for a Fixed Fastener Assembly
Rules
Calculating Gaps; Working the Route
Calculating Inner and Outer Boundary Means and Their Tolerances
Plugging the Numbers into the Number Charts
Calculating Statistical Tolerancing
Root Sum Squares
Bender Factor
Reintegrating the Statistical Tolerancing into the Assembly
A Simpler Way to Reintegrate the Statistical Tolerance
More Statistical Formulas and Symbols
Glossary of Statistical Terms
24 How to be Specific in
Calculating and Specifying Statistical
Requirements
for size and Geometric Tolerancing
Some Useful Definitions When Geometric Tolerances are Used
Symbology for SPC Formulas
Arithmetic Mean; Normal Distribution of Tolerance and the Standard
Deviation; Statistical Probability for Tolerance StackUp Analysis for
Positional Geometric Tolerances
Calculating a Standard Deviation
Predicting the Amount of Tolerance to be Consumed by Manufacturing
Charts and Tables
25 Tolerance StackUp
Analysis in a 5Part Assembly
Determining a MIN GAP in a Rotating Assembly
Factors vs. Nonfactors
Alignment
Dealing with Threaded Features
Calculating the Pertinent Numbers
Simplifying the Assembly Drawing
Creating a Line Graph with Numbers to Calculate the Minimum Clearance
Adding the Negative and Positive Designations
Wall Thickness Calculations and Choosing the Pertinent Tolerances
Single Part Analysis
Using Profile Tol. and Separate Requirements for Accumulated Error
26 Tolerance StackUp
Created during Manufacture due to Changing Set Ups
Where the Tolerance Accumulation Comes From
Proportions and Trigonometry
27 GD&T as a Language
To Properly Read a Drawing
Reading the Feature Control Frames as Sentences
Profile
Tolerance Zones and Pattern Shift Zones
Reading Two Single Segment Controls
Using Gages to Visualize a Geometric Tolerance’s Meaning
Reading a GD&T Sheet
Optional Tolerancing Approaches for Similar Results
Gears
Pattern Shift, Where it Comes From and How it Effects the Workpiece
Bonus Tolerance, Virtual Condition and Zero Positional Tolerances
Threads, Gears and Splines
Sequential Tolerancing Using the Simultaneous Requirement Rule
28 Definitions 